Rohtas Fort

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Rohtas Fort is a 16th Century citadel which is said to be made by giants and not by humans, because its grandeur and massiveness is mind-blowing and one is stunned for hours at its intricacy and labyrinth like structure. It is located near the city of Jehlum in the Pakistani province of Punjab. The fortress was built during the reign of King Sher Shah Suri. The fort was designed to block the advances of Mughal emperor Humayun, who had been exiled to Persia following his defeat at the Battle of Kannauj. The fort occupies a strategic position between the mountainous region of Afghanistan and the plains of Punjab, and was intended to prevent the Mughal emperor from returning to India. In addition to that , the fort was also designed to suppress the local Gakhar tribes of the Potohar region. The Gakhar tribes were allies of the Mughal Empire, and refused to recognize the suzerainty of King Sher Shah Suri. The fort is one of the largest and most formidable in the subcontinent as it was never stormed or captured by force, and has survived remarkably intact. The fort is known for its large defensive walls, and several monumental gateways.
Rohtas Fort was built on a hill overlooking a gorge where the Kahan River meets a seasonal stream called Parnal Khas within the Tilla Jogian Range. The fort is about 300 feet (91 m) above its surroundings. It is 2,660 feet (810 m) above sea level and covers an area of 12.63 acres (51,100 m2).
The height of the outer wall varies between 10 and 18 metres, with a thickness that varies between 10 and 13 metres. The fortified walls have 68 bastions at irregular intervals, with 12 monumental gateways providing access to the inner fort. The ramparts follow the hilltop’s contours. The walls have up to 3 terraces located at different levels. Each level was connected to the other by way of a staircase. The uppermost terrace has merlon-shaped battlements from which muskets could be fired, and from which soldiers could also pour molten lead. The wall is built in sandstone laid in lime mortar mixed with brick. The gates are in grey ashlar masonry. Some portions have been built using burnt brick.
Rohtas Fort was inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1997 for being an “exceptional example of the Muslim military architecture of Central and South Asia.”

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